In “What Are Woodpeckers Pecking For – Drums of Love and War” (Max Bird Facts) Maxfield Weakly writes:
Woodpeckers peck for three primary reasons: foraging, nesting, and signaling.
The pecking action is impressive and not seen to the same extent in any other group of birds. This exceptional action requires particular adaptations to these birds’ bodies.
Let’s dive right into the reasons why woodpeckers peck, starting with food.
However, drilling through wood can be a tedious ordeal, and without special equipment, it can lead to life-threatening injury. Luckily for our woodpeckers, they are packed with unique and unusual features.
A woodpecker’s feet have a toe arrangement called zygodactyl. This is where the toes form an x-shape, giving the bird tremendous grip strength.
Woodpeckers pair their vice-like feet with stiff tail feathers to steady themselves against a tree trunk.
Their most impressive adaptations are in the head and skull. Thick, spongy bone absorbs the shock and impact of pecking. This spongy bone, along with a very specialized beak shape and hyoid bone, woodpeckers can hammer away at trees all day without any injury.
Their tongue is just as fascinating. A woodpecker’s tongue completely wraps around its skull, and it’s long enough to reach deep into the trees. With many woodpecker species, the tongue is barbed at the end, ensuring they capture their prey once located.
Millions of years of evolution through random mutation and natural selection led to the perfectly designed features woodpeckers today use to drill into even the hardest woods.